Antichrist & Revelation


  • 1 John 2:18-22; 4:3; 2 John 7: ANTICHRIST
    • “Antichrist is coming…many antichrists have come”
    • “from us…not of us;” “denies…Jesus;” “false prophets;” replaces God (cf. 1 Jn 2:26-27)
  • Dan. 7:7-12, 17-27: LITTLE HORN
    • Emerges in 4th kingdom, when 10 kingdoms arise (Rome); plucked up three horns; “eyes like the eyes of a man” (false prophet/seer); “made war with the saints and prevailed over them”; a “different” kingdom; “speak words against the Most High;” “the saints…shall be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time;” defeated by Jesus’ return
  • 2 Thes 2:3-12: MAN OF LAWLESSNESS
    • “Rebellion;” “opposes and exalts himself…proclaiming himself to be God;” “in the temple of God;” “the mystery of lawlessness is already at work…he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way;” “the Lord Jesus will kill;” “power and false signs and wonders;” “deception…strong delusion”
  • Rev. 13; 17: LAMB-BEAST
    • “like a lamb…spoke like a dragon;” “exercises all the authority of the first beast;” “great signs…deceives;” “his number is 666”
    • “False prophet” (Rev. 19:20)
    • Connected with earthly-harlot-Babylon / false church (Rev. 17); contrasting heavenly-bride-Jerusalem / true church (Rev. 21)
  • Book of Revelation
    • 1; 21-22: Jesus & Pure Bride
    • 2-3: Seven existing churches = “things that are” (1:19)
    • 4-5: “things that are to take place after this” (1:19; 4:1)
    • 6-7: Seals (Secular Rome – “Christian” Rome?)
    • 8-9: Trumpets (Rome & Islam?)
    • 10-11: Church’s witness reduced; Word & Spirit present
    • 12-13; 17: Beast of Sea, Earth (Secular Gov’t, False Church?)
    • 14-16; 18-20: Bowls & final judgments

Historical Records

Daniel 7; 2 Thessalonians 2 & the Papacy

  • Arises after Rome Falls: “The early writings of the [church] fathers tell us with remarkable unanimity that…on the fall of Caesar, he [Antichrist] would arise.” (Guinness, as qtd by Ralph Woodrow, Great Prophecies of the Bible, 1989, p. 130)
  • Rome split into 10 kingdoms: “Macchiavelli, the Roman historian, described the [Roman] Empire as being divided among the [10] various Gothic tribes.” (Ralph Woodrow, Great Prophecies of the Bible, 1989, p. 136)
  • Rome takes 3 kingdoms: “The ‘three kings’ which he [the Papacy] displaced…are thought to refer to Lombards, Ravenna and Rome, which were handed over to the Popes as the beginning of their Temporal Kingdom, (A.D. 754).” (H. H. Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook, 1965, p. 346). They could also be: Heruli (493), Vandals (534), Ostrogoths (553) (Elliot, as qtd by Ralph Woodrow, Great Prophecies of the Bible, 1989, pp. 136-137)
  • “a time, times, and half a time” (1,260 days/years): “The Papacy dominated the world for approximately 1260 years, 6th to 18th centuries A.D.” (H. H. Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook, 1965, p. 348)
  • Boastful words against God: “It is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.” (Bull of Pope Boniface VIII promulgated November 18, 1302) “Union of minds, therefore, requires…complete submission and obedience of will…to the Roman Pontiff, as to God Himself.” (SAPIENTIAE CHRISTIANAE ENCYCLICAL OF POPE LEO XIII ON CHRISTIANS AS CITIZENS) “We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty.” (Encyclical Letter Præclara Gratulationis Publicæ of Pope Leo XIII JUNE 20, 1894)
  • “War with the saints”: “Untold millions” of martyrs died at the hands of popes (H. H. Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook, 1965, p. 793). “It has been estimated that fifty million Christians were killed during those centuries of Papal persecution.” (Ralph Woodrow, Great Prophecies of the Bible, 1989, p. 139)

Notable Christians Endorsing the Papacy as Antichrist:

Eberhard II (1200s); Michael of Cesena (1300s); John Wyclif (1300s); John Huss (1369-1415); Martin Luther (1483-1546); Philipp Melancthon (1497-1560); John Calvin (1509-1564); John Knox (1505-1572); Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531); William Tyndale (1484-1536); King James Bible translators (1611); Nicholas Ridley (1500-1555); Hugh Latimer (1490-1555); Roger Williams (1603-1683); Westminster Confession of Faith (1647); Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727); Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758); John Wesley (1703-1791); Albert Barnes (1798-1870); Charles Spurgeon (1834-1892)

Joshua Reflections

These are notes collected from studying Joshua with Matt Lantz and Matt Roefer. Anything good comes from the Lord. Everything else is from us!

Jordan Baptism

As Israel passing through the Red Sea is a type for Christian baptism (1 Cor 10:1-2, 6)…
So Israel passing through the Jordan (Josh 3-5) also seems a picture of this water baptism…However, the Red Sea passing, I believe, shows what we pass OUT OF. While the Jordan passing shows what we pass INTO. Thus they are like 2 sides of the same coin.

Red Sea:

  • left Egypt
  • Sin/oppressor was buried
  • It was on Passover

Jordan (Josh 3-5):

  • enter Canaan / Promised Land
  • New people (this is the 2nd generation, because the first sinned)
  • Happened in conjunction with circumcision
  • Day AFTER Passover they entered Promised Land
  • Now they are following Joshua (the Hebrew name is identical to Jesus’ name)
  • “Today I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you.” (Josh 5:9)

Baptism is depicted in the NT as a burial of our old self unto a resurrection of a new self that now follows Jesus. It is also compared to circumcision wherein the flesh (our old/sinful self) is cut off / buried in the waters. In baptism Egypt (old self) is buried and we come out to follow Joshua (Jesus) into the Promised Land (ultimately a picture of heaven).

Israel Conquering Canaanites

A thought on Joshua thus far…
We read about how Joshua and Israel utterly destroyed the different peoples in Canaan. They did this by the sword, oftentimes, and by God’s power and help.

I think for many reasons, people today bristle or even show revulsion for what they did here. But there is a LOT of context that skeptics (and even Christians) miss in all this.

For instance:

  • God waited 400 years before kicking the people out of the land. Why? So that “the sin of the Amorites” would be “complete” (Gen. 15:16). In other words, God waited a long time before doing this. He needed the sin to be at “full measure” so to speak. And then it had to be removed without hesitancy.
  • How bad was the sin? Leviticus gives some ideas of it when we read that the residents were practicing homosexuality, bestiality (sex with animals), witchcraft, killing their children as sacrifice to idols, hosts of other sexual idolatry, and just general pagan practices. It was really bad.
  • Further, as we read in Joshua, their heart was hard toward God’s people and God’s ways. They were ready to kill (and not co-exist with) Israel without hesitation. So Israel had to for survival in some ways, as well.
  • If you remember from Gen. 6-9 (the flood), God had to send a flood to judge the sin of the earth. How bad was it? “The Lord saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time. ” (Gen. 6:5). Consider that language: EVERY INCLINATION was ONLY EVIL ALL THE TIME. Not just their actions were bad, but their heart was bad. Every inclination of their heart, in fact, was bad. Every inclination was ONLY evil. How often? ALL THE TIME. That is some extreme language. And, sadly, it’s true of the human heart in general, outside of God’s regenerative work. Thus…
  • Instead of using a flood to judge this “new crop” of wickedness in Canaan, God used His people to execute His wrath. A similar concept is seen in Rom. 13 regarding God using governing authorities to execute His wrath today.
  • There are other reasons He did it this way. And there are reasons why Christians reading Joshua today would be gravely mistaken to think this is a call to kill people who don’t follow God (hint, hint: The gospel really changes everything along these lines). But hopefully this is helpful for now

I’d also add that God warns Israel that if they continue in these same sins that the residents of Canaan did, then God would “vomit” them out of the land as well (Lev. 26, and elsewhere, talks about that). So it wasn’t God taking 1 side over another. He wants His glory to be known in the earth, which includes his purity and holiness…or I guess it is Leviticus 18:28 that talks about “vomiting” out…but I think Lev 26 also walks through all the warnings toward Israel in not following the sins of the residents.

quick neat testimony:

FOCL (Forum Of Christian Leaders) is a ministry I’ve really respected (based in Europe). I was looking at their annual conference teachings this year (happening now), and decided to listen to 2 teachers I’ve really grown from: (1) Albert Mohler, (2) Peter Williams.

And guess what they were talking about (out of all topics they could talk about)?:
(1) Albert Mohler – focused on Deut 6 and how to stay devoted to the Lord in the midst of a post-Christian culture (the very thing that has been so moving from me for the past 2 weeks…since I read it in Deut)
(2) Peter Williams – goes through the entire book of Judges in quick teachings. I started queuing it up right after I finished Joshua! The timing couldn’t have been better.

Don’t want to make more out of this than is there, but I did see it as a potentially slight confirmation that the Lord is stirring his people back to His word similarly to how He’s stirring us in that direction. Press on!

Something else…last night when putting the kids to bed I read them Psalm 73 where it says God holds us by our right hand. They asked, “why the right hand?” I talked about how it is a generally dominant hand, so it shows strength. In the back of my mind I wondered about Ehud (left-handed man used by God)… I thought about how that story broke the norm, and wondered about it fits in with the whole of Scripture. After putting them down, I started listening to Peter Williams on Judges, and wouldn’t you know it, he talks about the significance of Ehud being left-handed in light of the rest of the Bible. You can’t plan these sorts of things! I love the Lord weaving all these things together!!

Assigned Territories

Quick Question:  For us a 21 Century Believers in Christ, what do we do with all the territory descriptions and locations in Josh 18-19?  It seems boring.  I guess we could map it out. Just wondering anyone’s thoughts.

I actually do have a couple thoughts on this:

  • when I wrote through the book of Joshua years ago, I did take out a map and try to draw out the territories…it was fascinating
  • I also think of the application in terms of ministry — their territory parallels the ministry God gives us…you can see how faithfulness leads into more territory/ministry (like with Caleb)

Be Strong and Courageous

As someone who has struggled with anxiety for some time (thankfully much improved as of late by the grace of God) I really appreciate the book of Joshua. Specifically his call from Moses to take over for him and from the Lord over and over to be “strong and courageous” and he leads his people into the promised land. There were so man chances for him to cower in fear but he was truly strong and courageous. And then His famous call at the end of the book “As for me and my House we will serve the Lord.” Basically telling them you do as you choose but I have seen all the Lord has done and how faithful he has been and I will follow Him the rest of my days! Powerful.

God As Our Portion

Also I was really struck by how the 11 tribes were all getting their portion or “inheritance,” and the Levites who have been set apart now for some time were not getting property. Instead, their inheritance was to be the Lord (Joshua 13:33). I found this to be incredible.I have had some really terrible, gross thoughts lately about somehow being entitled to an inheritance here on earth as I see others on my life getting money, houses, etc from their families. Of course, this is the kind of stuff that tears up families. I do not want to be entitled or need one dime from anyone though. Rather, for only the Lord God of Israel to be my inheritance. This is my prayer today and has been through this week as I came across this passage. May I be more like a Levite- only desiring the Lord.

Deuteronomy Reflections

These are notes collected from studying Exodus with Matt Lantz and Matt Roefer. Anything good comes from the Lord. Everything else is from us!

Deut 6

Deut 6 has been really speaking to me:

“These words that I command you today shall be ON YOUR HEART.
and shall TALK OF THEM WHEN YOU SIT in your house,
and WHEN YOU WALK by the way,
and they shall be as FRONTLETS BETWEEN YOUR EYES.
“And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as we are this day. And it will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to do all this commandment before the LORD our God, as he has commanded us.” (6:6-25).

So much could be said here! But let me give a quick take, rephrased for today:

Get God’s word in your heart. Actively teach them to your children (if you don’t someone else will teach them false things). When you sit, walk, lie down, and rise up–basically all parts of the day–talk about these words with your family and friends. Meditate on them, work them out, keep going back to them. Make it what you think about and what you work towards. Write them anywhere you can. On Slack channels…at your house…on pieces of paper…in your text messages…in your e-mails…everywhere. If you don’t, you will unwittingly end up taking in the words of the world and the Enemy…and before you know it you fell for Satan’s way of thinking about things, instead of God’s. And if you are careful to do all this…you will see goodness and be filled with life. You will walk in true righteousness.

Deut 13

“If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or wonder that he tells you comes to pass, and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods,’ which you have not known, ‘and let us serve them,’ you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams. For the Lord your God is testing you, to know whether you love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. You shall walk after the Lord your God and fear him and keep his commandments and obey his voice, and you shall serve him and hold fast to him. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has taught rebellion against the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you out of the house of slavery, to make you leave the way in which the Lord your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from your midst.
Deuteronomy 13:1-5

What a contrast — God’s Scripture has authority over signs/prophecies, etc.!

“If your brother, the son of your mother, or your son or your daughter or the wife you embrace or your friend who is as your own soul entices you secretly, saying, ‘Let us go and serve other gods,’ which neither you nor your fathers have known, some of the gods of the peoples who are around you, whether near you or far off from you, from the one end of the earth to the other, you shall not yield to him or listen to him, nor shall your eye pity him, nor shall you spare him, nor shall you conceal him. But you shall kill him. Your hand shall be first against him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people.”
Deuteronomy 13:6-9

Gods word is greater even than close relationships! It’s greater than what those around us think/do.


There are some interesting things I keep coming across

  • why were there (3) cities for accidental murders?
  • why were men to go before God 3 times per year (at the 3 feasts)? 
    • what did they say/give an account of?
    • should we do this as elders of a community 3 times a year? 
  • Deut 14:28: “At the end of every three years…” – why 3 years?

Deut 14 & Tithing

Deut 14 speaks to different uses of our tithe (which I think speaks to all of our possessions this side of the cross):

  • feed ourselves
  • feed the helpless (widows, fatherless)
  • Feed guests (“sojourners”)
  • Feed those ministering Christ

I’m amazed at how much this parallels uses of the church’s funds in the NT!

I was also amazed and struck how much Deut. speaks of the sojourner. So very close to the heart of God! Guests could also include foreigners to our neck of the woods.

Deut 17

“And when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself in a book a copy of this law, approved by the Levitical priests. And it shall be with him, and he shall read in it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God by keeping all the words of this law and these statutes, and doing them, that his heart may not be lifted up above his brothers, and that he may not turn aside from the commandment, either to the right hand or to the left, so that he may continue long in his kingdom, he and his children, in Israel.
Deuteronomy 17:18-20


  1. I find it amazing that God speaks prophetically about kings a couple hundred years before they came into being…and even when they came, it wasn’t how God wanted, but He was still willing to work with it.
  2. I love—again—the emphasis on knowing and meditating over EVERY word of God.

Deut 18

  1. love that those who minister the Lord (Levites) had no inheritance on earth, though their needs were met (dependent on their community, the fellow Israelites). What a picture for us!—being detached from this earth frees us to minister heaven (our true inheritance) to others
  2. the “prophet” who was coming like Moses seems to point squarely and ultimately at Jesus, Acts 3:17-26, though other (lesser) prophets did come first

Should Christians Follow the OT Law?

See Blog Post: Should Christians Obey the Old Testament?

Also, I see 3 general categories of law:

  1. RITUAL (eating foods, washing clothes, feasts, Sabbath, etc.) – these are external things that have been fulfilled in Christ; our faith in Him and being led of the Spirit means we fulfill all these and go beyond them in terms of righteousness before God. You can do them if you want, but it makes you no more righteous than the one who doesn’t.
  2. MORAL (sexuality, remove idols, don’t murder, don’t covet, etc) – these carry on for us today. But even these are lived into in a greater degree as we follow the Spirit within us, and obey these from the heart.
  3. GOVERNMENTAL (rules on murder; slavery; marriage-divorce; etc) – these can be helpful in making policies on a governmental/civil level, but aren’t meant for the church alone (for instance, I believe in capital punishment based on Scripture, but that would need to happen by elected officials of the State; it would be wrong for the church to kill anyone by their own decrees).

In ALL of these categories:

  • Jesus/ The Spirit within wants to lead us into a greater righteousness than what is communicated by the “letter of the law”
  • principles should be given more weight than the “letter of the law” see 1 Cor 9:8-10

Yes, the NT repeatedly differentiates moral from ritual of the OT. Hebrews, for instance, says we are in sin to look for a priest, temple, animal sacrifice, Sabbath observance, eating kosher, etc. as part of becoming righteous or sanctified in Jesus. Similarly, Paul says in Col 2 how we are not judged by the ritual anymore.

Yet Paul also quotes from 10 commandments in saying parents should obey masters (Eph 5), or we shouldn’t covet (Rom 7).

Mark 7:14-15, 17-23 says: “And he called the people to him again and said to them, “Hear me, all of you, and understand: 15 There is nothing outside a person that by going into him can defile him, but the things that come out of a person are what defile him.” And when he had entered the house and left the people, his disciples asked him about the parable. And he said to them, “Then are you also without understanding? Do you not see that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him, 19 since it enters not his heart but his stomach, and is expelled?” ( Thus he declared all foods clean.) And he said, “What comes out of a person is what defiles him. 21 For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22 coveting, wickedness, deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride, foolishness. 23 All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person.”

I think that passage shows this:

  • foods DON’T make you unclean (ritual)
  • wicked hearts DO make you unclean (moral)

“Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath. These are a shadow of the things to come, but the substance belongs to Christ.” Colossians 2:16-17

This passage from Col 2:16-17 is another key one. Look at all the things we aren’t judged for anymore: eating, festivals, sabbaths.

Why not? Because they were all just temporary placeholders fulfilled in Christ (“shadows” if you will). We in Christ no longer need them. Further, we are told that each of these OT ordinances will have things pointing out and pointing toward Jesus and his sacrifice and his life in us. Now that is some exciting OT reading for us to discover all these treasures pointing toward Him! Dig in!! While knowing we fulfill them by believing on Christ and the gospel and being led by His Spirit.

See also The Old Testament Law – Jeff Durbin Critiques Andy Stanley.

Deut 20: Fear Is Contagious

And the officers shall speak further to the people, and say, ‘Is there any man who is fearful and fainthearted? Let him go back to his house, lest he make the heart of his fellows melt like his own.’
Deuteronomy 20:8

Deut 29 – Don’t Focus on Secret Things

“The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things that are revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law.
Deuteronomy 29:29

Stop fixating on “secret things”. Focus on the revealed things of Gods word that you could walk faithfully with Him.


Quick note (more for me than anyone):

  • Jesus was on cross 6 hours, then said it is finished, and now we enter His rest.
  • God worked 6 days, then people were created, and the 7th day was rest.
  • Feast of booths started 7 weeks after Sabbath of Passover (in month 1)
  • The 7th month held 3 feasts for sabbath (Lev 23)
  • The 7th year was supposed to be a year of rest
  • After the 7th of the 7th years you had Jubilee
  • 490 years = 70 * 7 years (see Dan 9)

God’s Justice

“All his ways are justice.” Deuteronomy 32:4

Compare with Isaiah 55 – “God’s ways are not our ways”

If we are serious about justice in this society it will come from looking at God and His word much closer. Our versions of justice will always be warped.

Deut 30 – God’s Blessing & Multiplication

Reflecting on how blessing and multiplication comes, according to God: “If you obey the commandments of the Lord your God that I command you today, by loving the Lord your God, by walking in his ways, and by keeping his commandments and his statutes and his rules, then you shall live and multiply, and the Lord your God will bless you in the land that you are entering to take possession of it.” Deut 30:16

Ultimately, only Christ is faithful like this, so I believe it comes firstly on trusting in Christ’s work and righteousness alone! But then He also gives us His Spirit and Word to walk in his ways.

Deut 31

And Moses commanded them, “At the end of every seven years, at the set time in the year of release, at the Feast of Booths, when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God at the place that he will choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their hearing. Assemble the people, men, women, and little ones, and the sojourner within your towns, that they may hear and learn to fear the Lord your God, and be careful to do all the words of this law, and that their children, who have not known it, may hear and learn to fear the Lord your God, as long as you live in the land that you are going over the Jordan to possess.”
Deuteronomy 31:10-13

Yet another way to get this word in us and the  next generation.

Deut / Torah Reflections

I have really enjoyed reading the Torah in succession- it is really helpful to see the same themes continuing to emerge and how much the Lord continues to call the Israelites to not fear and follow Him. He provides over and over and over. They are pretty stubborn and stiff necked and this is so applicable to today! Unfortunately all too often neglected.

In Deut. specifically toward the end I was amazed how many times God called them to “purge evil from their midst.” It hit me how God’s sovereignty was ever present giving them the ability to choose Him over and over and His commandments which lead to life or to sin which leads to death. The same choice we have now. He calls us His treasured possession and says follow me-I desire you but ultimately it’s our choice.

Deut. 30: 19-20 “ I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and curse. Therefore, CHOOSE LIFE, that you and your offspring may live, loving the Lord your God, obeying His voice, and holding fast to him, for he is your life and length of days.”

Numbers Reflections

These are notes collected from studying Exodus with Matt Lantz and Matt Roefer. Anything good comes from the Lord. Everything else is from us!

Numbers 1

  1. The largest counts came from Judah and Dan. I find this intriguing, because when you get to Judges, I believe it was Dan who brought the most bad things into Israel (e.g. idolatry) and Judah brought the best things (e.g. deliverance from enemy). Not 100% sure on that. But if it holds, then it shows that your strength can be used for great good or great evil (since they were the 2 largest tribes in Num 1)
  2. I love the attention given to the Lord and making sure He is pleased in Num. 1:47-53. Israel could have used many more troops from Levi, but instead, God wanted those men to ensure the Lord was properly worshipped. Likewise, all of our spiritual warfare will not be successful if we lose sight of pleasing the Lord and worshipping Him.

Num 1-4

I am challenged by the fact that they are making all these provisions for when/how to camp, when/how to move, and when/how to war…and the majority of the time is taken up with provisions for tending to the Lord and His presence in the tabernacle. How lopsided we’ve become when time tending to the Lord is a small piece or after thought.

Num 6 (with some Num 13 & 14 mixed in)

I have been struck first in seeing how God really sets apart people groups and people for him. First, the Levites (ch1-4), and then with the Nazarites and their vow (ch. 6).

I found it interesting the famous benediction “The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make His face shine upon you and be gracious to you; the Lord lift up His countenance upon you and give you peace,” follows the Nazirite vow in ch. 6.

The point being here, God is calling His people to be set apart. To be Holy. The same calling He has for us today. Thankfully, without all the same rules and regulations but He is still looking for the faithful few. He found that in Caleb especially & also Joshua (Ch. 13 & 14). Caleb reminds me of Noah in this way. When seemingly everyone else was doubting he was faithful. Then God steps in and keeps him (and Joshua) as a remnant (14:38).

Num 11

See More Graves of Craving

Num 15

The Lord’s words to Moses in ch. 15:39-41 hit me hard:

“And it shall be a tassel for you to look at and remember all the commandments of the Lord, to do them, not to follow after your own heart and your own eyes which you are inclined to whore after.** So you shall remember and do my commandments and be holy (there it is again), to your God. I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God: I am the Lord your God.”

Num 16

I loved Num 16:46-48 – namely how they rushed to make atonement so he could stand “between the dead and the living” and the plague would be stopped (v. 48). I read that passage and saw this vision of God running to “interpose His precious blood” (from “Come Thou Fount” lyrics). And that He brought mercy to us sinners when we deserved death. This image of Him running to give us life (like Aaron did) was very touching.

Num 17

I have was really touched by Numbers 17!! Wow, that blessed me so much.

  • they were trying to discern who was God’s appointed leaders. So what did they look for?
  • they took staffs (things that have no possibility of life growing from them, since they are cut off the root and have no fruit growing from them)…
  • then they put the staffs in the tabernacle, where they had to endure a cold, dark night…
  • THEN…God proved that Levi was appointed to minister before Him…HOW?…
  • By making the staff sprout “buds…blossoms…ripe almonds”. TOTALLY IMPOSSIBLE. This is a work of God alone! Further…
  • If you look at Exodus 37:18-19, almond buds and blossoms were part of the lampstand. AND…
  • If you look at Rev. 1:20, the lampstand is a picture of the church.

OK…I’ll try to connect all this…

The way I see it is that God looks especially for fruit to be produced in His chosen leaders/ministers. The sign of being a priest of God (which all the church is – 1 Pet. 2:9), is that we produce fruit. Further, we produce fruit that would otherwise be impossible to produce. A staff is dead at both ends. Yet it was able to produce fruit. This is impossible! Do you think you can manufacture love, joy, peace, patience, etc. … all the way to “self-control” (Gal. 5) by yourself?? Impossible!! You can’t do this. It is an act of God in your life, and it shows you are qualified to minister to Him if you do this (and only those with this special fruit of His indwelling Spirit will be able to minister to Him truly).

Further…it had to endure a dark, cold night (I guess I’m assuming it was cold) in the tabernacle. This fruit comes impossibly, and especially at dark times in our life. Fruit of Christ/Christ’s Love produced in dark times is probably the best indicator that someone is a true Christian (exactly what Rom. 5:3-5 indicates).

Lastly, this picture is not just on Aaron’s / Levi’s staff. It perfectly matches God’s design for His lampstand, which is a picture of His church (Rev. 1:20). That is, we are His light in darkness. So it gives further picture that this is what should happen in all of us. Can you make it happen by your will power and strength?! God forbid!! It has been and will always be impossible. That’s how we know it is God at work in you.

Num 20

I just read chapter 20 and it’s crazy! I know many of us know the story of God keeping Moses out of the promised land but when you really think about it being for striking the rock 2x, and then the fact not only did he not enter, but Aaron dies soon after for being an accomplice in this. Basically, they are severely punished because of their unbelief and this is how seriously God takes this. See Ch.14:11 and God saying “how long will they (Israelites) not believe in me?”

Just crazy when you really think about all that Aaron and Moses actually did in faith and for the Lord that they both died without seeing the promised land.

A powerful symbolism here (to shed some new light):

  • At first, Moses was told to strike the rock so water would flow out (Ex. 17).
  • 1 Cor. 10 tells us “that Rock was Christ” (v. 4).
  • And John 7 has Jesus indicating that the water that came out was His Spirit (John 7:37-39).
  • So the rock was struck and water was given in Exodus 17, just like Jesus was crucified and the Holy Spirit poured out to us.


  • In Ex. 17, the Hebrew word for “rock” is a “sunken rock”. In Num 20, the word is an “exalted rock”. So Ex. 17 you clearly have a picture of Christ’s humiliation and crucifixion (as the rock was a type of Him). But in Num 20 you get a picture of Him as now exalted.

So…How do we receive His Holy Spirit today, now that He is exalted? We speak to Him, and ask Him for this (Luke 7:11).

What was Moses told to do in Num 20? Speak to the rock!! The picture holds really tight.

But when Moses struck the rock, the picture shows him metaphorically “crucifying Jesus” all over again. In Hebrews 6:6 we read of people unable to come to God’s promised land because they would be “crucifying the Son of God all over again”. These are people who, I believe, are guilty of blaspheming the Holy Spirit and totally turning away from God without repentance.


It shows that, sadly, the picture is consistent of Moses “striking the rock” when it was already struck in Ex. 17, and thus, metaphorically, crucifying Jesus all over again, which means he can’t come in the Promised Land.

OK… all of that picture doesn’t mean God had no heart for Moses, though it does show that God does not show favoritism (similar to Exod 4 when God threatened to kill Moses if his son wasn’t circumcised).

But take a look at Matt. 17:3 – “Just then there appeared before them Moses and Elijah, talking with Jesus [in the Promised Land!]” …God brought Moses there after all, just not as quick. 

Num 30

Quick thing:
I love Num 30!!!
It gives me so much confidence in prayer. God is my Father, Christ is my husband. Thus we can pray to God: “Lord, please trump what I plan to do here. Be my husband and Father to say, ‘that’s not a good idea’…veto my bad plans like they were commanded to do in Num 30.”

I just don’t trust myself but am glad God is there to speak for or against my plans like a safety net that keeps me from error.

Num 32

Num 32 challenges me in this way:
Though the 2.5 tribes found rest for themselves already (East of Jordan), they still were going to work and sacrifice their lives for the other tribes to find rest, too (West of the Jordan).

I think of us who are Christians as those who already found rest for our souls. It’s easy to think we should just sit back and relax. Instead, may we labor, war, and sacrifice our lives so that many others will come to rest in Christ as well!

Num 35

Before advancing to Deut, I wanted to share a quick thing that touched me from Num 35 ~
In this chapter, I was reflecting how we could do such better as a society if we adopted these standards of justice (versus imposing our own warped standards that originate from us). Namely (in no particular order):

  • intent DOES matter – even when dealing with murder, it is a world of difference if they intentionally meant to murder or if it was an honest accident. I think of this in some of the “new rules” of racism, if I may call them that. Namely, you are guilty if you offend others, regardless of your intent. Not true according to God’s word.
  • look for 2-3 witnesses to establish fault – it’s not enough to have 1 person give their “read” on the situation; we need 2-3 independent sources to recognize where the fault truly is
  • we should make provisions to protect people who hurt others without intending to do so (like they had cities of refuge for the one who killed without intending)
  • simultaneously, it is good to give space when such hurt happens, because the feelings are so raw in the other ones involved
  • and, if the unintentional offender violates giving such “space” between them and the one who was hurt, then it’s kind of on them if those hurt seek revenge (at least in 1 sense, because they weren’t careful to keep distance when they knew raw emotions were at play)
  • finally, if the intent was indeed to cause hurt (murder, in this case), they are clearly guilty and should be judged as such (thankfully – even when we are guilty of such things, Christ died for that too, so we can repent and receive the death penalty via Christ taking it for us…blessed be the Lamb!)

I know I’m taking some liberties in what it actually says, but I’m trying to consider some of the principles at play. And I do think if we started adopting more of these principles it could bring radical change for the better in our current divisive society.

We Are One Body (Song by Earl Washington)

From the late (and great) Earl Washington (with Matthew Ward of 2nd Chapter of Acts accompanying):

“We Are One Body” by Earl Washington (4 min, 25 sec)


We are one body,
Whether slave or free.
How can the eye say to the ear, 
"I'm no good;
"I'm no good"?

God has placed many members
Just as He has desired.
How can the eye say to the hand, 
"You're no good; 
You're no good," ?

We all need each other.
When one suffers, 
We all suffer.
We all need each other,
When one's honored, 
we are honored.

In the congregation,
Are lowly ones ignored?
Do we receive the ones who are small
And rejoice?

Repeat Chorus multiple times; fade out

Leviticus Reflections

These are notes collected from studying Leviticus with Matt Lantz, Matt Roefer, and Neal Karsten. Anything good comes from the Lord. Everything else is from us!


  1. BURNT OFFERING – this is BY FAR the most common sacrifice mentioned in the Bible, and seems the base of other sacrifices. Abraham offered up Isaac as burnt offering. Noah offered this up to appease God’s wrath from judgment. This is a sacrifice given totally to the Lord for our atonement (= covering) of sins. This clearly points to the death of Christ given over to God to satisfy God’s wrath toward our sin. Note that it was celebrated by a male animal without blemish in the prime of his life. BOOM! Sound familiar?
  2. GRAIN OFFERING – in John 12:24, Jesus reveals that a seed going into the ground is like a seed dying and being buried. BUT, when it comes up, it’s like resurrection. Hallelujah! We also read of the firstfruits as a symbol of resurrection (see 1 Cor. 15). The grain offering incorporates the firstfruits – no death is involved in the sacrifice. It is clearly pointing to resurrection of a perfect life. BOOM! Sound familiar? We are just beginning Leviticus and we already have Christ’s death and resurrection as the starting point!
  3. PEACE OFFERING – this was an offering you bring before God to celebrate the peace you already have with him. It is something you’d eat with others. Part of it is given to God (the fat and blood), and part of it is for you. It is a meal shared with you, others, and the Lord to celebrate that you have peace with God. BOOM! Sound familiar? Our communion is this…it extends the death of Christ to be a provision of unity with others (compare 1 Cor. 11).
  4. SIN OFFERING – this is a sacrifice you present after you sin. It’s interesting to note the sins mentioned there. A lot deal with your words: did you speak hastily, or did you not speak when you should’ve because you knew the truth in a matter (ouch – that resonates!). But, the sacrifice of a perfect offering in the prime of his life atones for this sin. BOOM! We have provision in Jesus when we sin against God (see 1 John 1).
  5. TRESPASS OFFERING – this is a special kind of sin offering. It is still a sin that requires atonement by an unblemished sacrifice. But it is when you hijack something for yourself that belongs to another (goes back to Exodus 20 – do not steal). When you do this, you need to restore what you took PLUS add 1/5 to the value (think of it like paying interest for the time it was away). An amazing thing to think about here is that when lepers are restored to God, they have to present a trespass offering. Why?! What property was taken that belonged to another?? Well…the leper himself/herself belongs to God to be used by him. The leprosy took them away from being used by God. When they become clean they can go back to being used by God! Amen – all for His glory!! We belong to Him. Sin isn’t just a bad thing for us to experience (though it is that). Sin is “falling short of the glory of God” (Rom. 3:23). We think of sin as falling short of a good life we can experience. Not quite…it’s better to think of sin in terms of what God loses. He gets less glory in us. Look at Luke 15. The lost coin, the lost sheep, the lost son. All point to what the owner loses when there is sin, and what the owner gains when sinners are restored. Owner = God!

Chapter 2:13 stood out as well. That the offering needed to have salt. Just thinking that is as an offering we are to be seasoned with salt as well. “You shall season all your grain offerings with salt. You shall not let the salt of the covenant with your God be missing from your grain offering; with all your offerings you shall offer salt.”


I find Lev. 8 a very moving picture to consider for us in our own ministry. We are all called to be priests (1 Pet. 2:9), therefore we should find application in priestly service and consecration for all Christians. And boy oh boy do we ever, IMHO!I believe Lev. 8 shows the picture of what Rom. 1-6 points to:

  • Romans 1-5 = Jesus’ blood atones for our Sins // Lev. 8 begins with the priests doing a sin offering, where the blood atones for their sins
  • Romans 6a = Jesus’ crucifixion renders us dead to sin // Lev. 8 continues with the priests offering a burnt offering where the whole animal is consumed for God, “crucified unto the Lord”, you could say. So not only are the priests’ sins covered by the blood of another life, but they join with the death (burnt offering) of the animal, just as we join with the crucifixion of Christ (see Rom. 6:1-6)
  • Romans 6b = our new life in Christ is now purchased by his blood so that it belongs to God, not sin…God is our new Master, purchased by His blood…therefore our life belongs to Him alone // Lev. 8 continues on with blood being applied to the tip of the ear, hand, feet – I believe this is a sign that our hearing, doing, walking no longer is up to us, but belongs wholly to the Lord (to the outermost parts of that…not 1 bit of it is for us anymore)

Lev. 10:1-2 should be a sobering warning for all of us. Zeal and passion can be deadly if it isn’t coupled with truth and knowledge: “Desire/Zeal without knowledge is not good, and whoever makes haste with his feet misses his way.” (Prov. 19:2). Sincerity, passion, and zeal can all lead to hell if it is not based on God’s word/truth/way. Thankfully we’ll see the contrast of this in Leviticus 16 where the Day of Atonement is set as a contrast to this tragedy of fire killing Aaron’s sons. In Lev. 16 we see GOD’S WAY. And when we see that truly, then our passion and zeal can be applied to that, and it will be well pleasing and lead to life before the Lord.

I’d also add the value of them being clothed/covered first in Lev. 8. This is a theme we’ve seen from Adam and Eve onward in the Bible. And it’s definitely a big deal in the N.T. (with us being covered/clothed in Christ and his righteousness). In fact, the N.T. letters seem to begin with first establishing this truth: you are clothed in Christ’s finished work, made perfectly righteous in Him. Then it proceeds from there in how to walk out this new life. Similarly, Lev. 8 shows the priests first being clothed, and then the rest of the procedures follow that.

“I Put a Case of Leprous Disease”

“When you come into the land of Canaan, which I give you for a possession, and I put a case of leprous disease in a house in the land of your possession,”
Leviticus 14:34

I PUT — definitely challenges some people’s concept of God… but the rest of the chap shows provisions for dealing with it…so He puts the sickness (which is all ultimately part of our own fall to sin back in the garden) but also shows how to remedy it


  • Ch 11 – becoming unclean by something outside you entering inside
  • Ch 12; 15 – becoming unclean by something from inside you going outside
  • Ch 13-14 – discerning uncleanness from something on you (if it comes from inside you, it’s unclean)

Lots to unpack here…for another time (:

Love Your Neighbor as Yourself

“You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against the sons of your own people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord.”
Leviticus 19:18

This is where the phrase “love your neighbor as yourself” originates in the Bible. The sad irony is how some have used the phrase for some people while incidentally they “take vengeance” and “bear a grudge” against other individuals or groups of people. It’s no different than Pharisees who had a strict way of defining who their “neighbor” was so that they felt off the hook for loving all people. It is a complete disregard of the context of this verse. Lord help us all return to Your heart and Your way that comes from Your Spirit alone!

So, if I may, I wanted to plunge in a little more to Leviticus 19. Mainly, I find this chapter important to look at carefully, because it gives so many examples of what it looks like to “love your neighbor as yourself”. As I said above, Lev. 19:18 is where that phrase originates. Though the same idea is found in Lev. 19:33 – “Love them [the foreigner] as yourself.” So if we look at the surrounding contexts of both of those verses, we can start to get God’s mind behind some of what this concept would look like:

  • As you reap wealth, leave some of it for the poor and needy (vv. 9-10)
  • Don’t steal from others (v. 11a)
  • Don’t lie or deceive others (v. 11b)…especially not when you are invoking God’s name in the matter (v. 12)
  • Don’t cheat others out of money/wealth that belongs to them (v. 13)
  • Don’t make deliberate obstacles for others, especially those with disabilities (v. 14)
  • Make judgments that are based 100% based on fact/actions, without giving special treatment to the poor OR the great (v. 15)
  • Don’t spread slander about anyone (v. 16a)
  • Don’t do things that could endanger others (v. 16b)
  • Don’t harbor bitterness or hate in your heart toward someone (v. 17a)
  • If you see someone doing wrong, tell them frankly and directly…don’t secretly resent or share this with others behind their back (v. 17b)
  • Don’t seek revenge against anyone. (v. 18a)
  • Don’t bear a grudge against anyone. (v. 18b)
  • Don’t mistreat anyone, especially foreigners or strangers to your area (v. 33)
  • Instead, welcome all people the way you would your own community (v. 34)

The last thing I might mention (though I think it’s obvious here)… Your “neighbor” is every single person. It’s the Conservatives and Liberals. It’s people of all beliefs. It’s the Police and the BIPOC. It’s the COVID vaccinators and anti-vaxxers. If they are people, they are your neighbors. It was the Pharisees who tried to redefine their “neighbors” to only the people who they had natural affinity towards (Luke 10:29).

In contrast, Jesus calls us to love neighbor (Luke 10:27), our enemy (Matt. 5:44), and our brothers and sisters in Christ with a special affinity/love that makes the world want to join the church (John 13:35; 15:17; etc.). All of this is impossible outside the Holy Spirit indwelling you and giving you His love for others, including that special love for the church (Gal. 5:22-23; 1 John 3:14), which is the sign that you are a true Christian (Eph. 1:13; Gal. 5:22).

I should probably add… We, as sinners, take things like this and immediately point to someone else who isn’t “living up” to this. I know because I am one! But I think that completely misses the point. Instead, ask God to search you on these things. And repent and ask forgiveness where He shows you you’ve missed the mark. I’m doing it with you. Then let’s walk together in that grace forward.

Jesus & The Gospel

But he shall not go through the veil or approach the altar, because he has a blemish, that he may not profane my sanctuaries,  for I am the Lord who sanctifies them.”
Leviticus 21:23 – 

Jesus alone can fulfill this on our behalf!

If it is to be accepted for you it shall be a male without blemish, of the bulls or the sheep or the goats.
Leviticus 22:19

Again…only Jesus fulfills!
He is the priest and sacrifice unblemished, male.

And whoever does any work on that very day, that person I will destroy from among his people.
Leviticus 23:30

This is in context of Day of Atonement where the high priest atones for their sins (Jesus fulfills this in gospel – see Heb 9). What a warning against us adding any of our works to the gospel. God will “destroy” us. See Gal 1:6-10.

“Bring out of the camp the one who cursed, and let all who heard him lay their hands on his head, and let all the congregation stone him.
Leviticus 24:14

This is sobering to consider. But, among other things, it shows that sin = death. Every time they killed an animal it was a reminder of this. It also shows the power of Christ’s sacrifice—if He without sin died; we with sin can live.

Giving Quality Offerings

Lev 27:14 stood out to me – “If anyone dedicates their house as something holy to the LORD, the priest will judge its quality as good or bad.” Simple concept, but it shows that God cares about the quality we offer to Him. It’s not enough to say we’ve just offered something.

Is your Christianity ‘progressive’?

Progressive Christianity generally means a version of Christianity that denies the true gospel, ultimate authority of the Bible, nature of God, and other biblical foundations (see Foundational Doctrine for 2020 (And Anytime)). Though it claims “progress” (hence the name), it deceptively leads people on the broad road that leads to hell (see Matt. 7).

Hence, we all should be aware of progressive Christianity where it lurks its sinister head.

Along these lines, Alisa Childers made a really helpful video to see warning signs of progressive Christianity. Here are the signals she alerts us to (as well as a link to the short video, below).

Signs of “Progressive Christianity”

  • They view the concept of Christ dying for your sins (the atonement, see 1 Cor. 15:3-4) as “cosmic child abuse”
  • They deny the Bible as God’s authoritative word, truth without error (see John 10:34-35). Instead, they see it as a study of people’s imperfect opinions about God and life at different times in history.
  • They deny biblical statements that we are all born sinners and have a sin nature from birth (see Rom. 5).
  • They deny that actual sin separates people from God (as Romans 1 teaches). Instead, they think it’s our own personal shame and feelings of “not being good enough” that separates us.
  • They see Jesus as a model to follow more than the Living God to worship (as Luke 24:52, and other passages, show)
  • They deny Jesus’ physical resurrection, or at least think it’s not important to believe that (in contrast, 1 Cor. 15 shows that if Christ didn’t physically resurrect we are hopeless and will die in our sins)
  • They doubt, ignore, and/or downplay the virgin birth (though Matthew and Luke’s gospels clearly teach it)
  • They doubt God being above and separate from nature, as 1 God in 3 Persons (Father, Son, Holy Spirit). Instead, they see God as part of nature (though Rom. 1 warns against blurring the lines of God as Creator and the creation He made).
  • They see Jesus as imperfect while living on earth (though 1 Pet. 1 teaches He was the “spotless lamb”.
  • They are favorable toward LGBTQ+ relationships and marriage (while God speaks strong words opposing it, see Rom. 1)
  • They doubt or deny hell (reasoning that a “good” God would never punish someone in hell), even though Jesus teaches on the reality of hell more than any other person in the Bible.
  • They embrace a critical theory / social justice gospel that sees your actions (particularly, your actions within an “oppressor/oppressed” framework) as part of the gospel, when the Bible is clear that you are saved by faith not works, and the gospel is a declaration of what has happened, not what is yet to happen (see Eph. 2; 1 Cor. 15; Gal; etc.).
  • They embrace pluralism that teaches all religions can coexist (when the Bible warns that those who receive a different Jesus and different gospel are condemned–see 2 Cor. 11; Gal. 1)

To be clear, Progressive Christianity is a sort of spectrum. If you hold any one of these views (but not all of them), you’ve chosen Progressive Christianity over true, biblical Christianity. It’s not too late to repent and come back to “the faith that was once for all entrusted to God’s holy people” (Jude 1:3).

See Is Your Favorite Pastor, Author, or Social Media Influencer a Progressive Christian? (9m):